Nursing Education & Research

Nurse education consists of the theoretical and sensible coaching provided to nurses with the aim to arrange them for his or her duties as medical care professionals. This education is provided to nursing students by practiced nurses and alternative medical professionals have qualified or practiced for instructional tasks. Most countries supply nurse education courses that may be relevant to general nursing or to specialized areas as well as psychological state nursing, medicine nursing and post-operatory nursing. Courses resulting in autonomous registration as a nurse generally last four years. Nurse education additionally provides post-qualification courses in specialist subjects at intervals nursing.

Nursing research gives proof accustomed support nursing practices. Nursing as associate evidence-based space of apply, has been developing since the time of nurse to the current day, wherever several nurses currently work as researchers primarily based in universities likewise as within the health care setting. Nurse education places focus upon the utilization of proof from analysis so as to rationalise nursing interventions.

Nursing Practice

Nursing Practice is that the actual provision of medical aid. In providing care, nurses implement the medical aid set up mistreatment the nursing method. This can be based mostly around a particular nursing theory that is chosen supported the care setting and population served. In providing medical aid, the nurse uses each nursing theory and best follow derived from nursing analysis. In general terms, the nursing Practice is that the methodology accustomed assess and diagnose desires, arrange outcomes and interventions, implement interventions, and judge the outcomes of the care provided. Like alternative disciplines, the profession has developed totally different theories derived from generally various philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to assist nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals.

Legal Nursing

The legal aspects of nursing have an impression on the way within which care is delivered to patients by nurses. Legal issues form the surroundings within which nursing is practiced and verify however documents are unbroken or shared. Ultimately, nurses and also the medical care they supply or judged supported a legal definition for the quality of look after nurses. Written “standards of care” and “guidelines” are obtainable as resources for decisive however medical care is to be delivered and also the quality of care. However, the legal definition of the quality of look after nurses isn’t a “guideline” or a “policy” set by anyone individual or establishment. Rather, it’s the embodiment of collective information for what’s needed of the common nurse and sets the minimum criteria for proficiency. In the past, physicians or alternative health care professionals might provide their opinions on the quality of look after nurses. No longer will physicians testify concerning the quality of look after nurses. Solely a nurse is taken into account to own the special body of information, education/training, and skill to produce testimony concerning what the typical nurse would do, below an equivalent or similar circumstances, for a patient presenting within the same or similar manner.

Ethics & Laws of Caring

In a traditional medical setting, ethical decisions occur occasionally and at times the nurse may face ethical dilemmas. In contrast, the correctional nurse may face ethical situations daily. The correctional nurse makes ethical decisions about care delivery, caring and patient advocacy in planning and providing safe patient care.

There are six ethical principles that arise frequently for the nurse who works in the correctional setting.

  1. Respect for persons (autonomy and self-determination)
  2. Beneficence (doing good)
  3. Nonmaleficence (avoiding harm)
  4. Justice (fairness, equitability, truthfulness)
  5. Veracity (telling the truth)
  6. Fidelity (remaining faithful to one’s commitment)

By instilling nurses with the values of patient-centered care, nursing schools and healthcare organizations help them develop a compassionate approach to care. Hospitals may use role-playing or simulation to teach nurses the skills they need to bond with their patients. Here are some ways nurses can show they care:


Make eye contact.

Greet your patient by their name.

Sit in a chair next to the patient when conversing.

Listen attentively without interrupting.

Carry out requests.

Ask patients what they need.

Answer questions.

Some Caring behaviors are evident in alternative professions. Enforcement is noted for his or her honesty and respect. Psychologists are comforting and need attentive listening skills to assist their patients. Academics should possess patience, attentive listening, sensitivity, and nice responsibility to mildew our Children into productive adults. The lists of professions are endless.

Critical Care Nursing & Emergency Nursing

Critical care nursing is that the field of nursing with a spotlight on the utmost care of the critically sick or unstable patients follows intensive injury, surgery or life threatening diseases. Essential care nurses is found operating in a very wide range of environments and specialties, like general medical aid units, medical aid units, surgical medical aid units, trauma medical aid units, coronary care units, cardiothoracic medical aid units, burns unit, medical specialty and a few trauma center emergency departments. These specialists usually watch out of critically sick patients World Health Organization need mechanical ventilation by manner of endotracheal canalization and/or titrating vasoactive blood vessel medications. Essential care nurses add a spread of various areas, with a various patient population. There are many units several essential care nurses operating in hospitals in medical aid units, post-operative care and high dependency units. They conjointly work on medical and transport groups.

Emergency nursing could be a specialty among the sector of skilled nursing specializing in the care of patients with medical emergencies, that is, those that need prompt medical attention to avoid semi-permanent incapacity or death. Emergency nurses square measure most often used in hospital emergency departments (EDs), though they will conjointly add imperative care centers, sports arenas, and on medical transport craft and ground ambulances. Emergency nursing could be a tight job and might be unpredictable. Emergency nurses have to be compelled to have basic information of most specialty areas, to be able to work struggling, communicate effectively with many varieties of patients, collaborate with a spread of health care suppliers and rate the task that has got to be performed. Violence could be a growing challenge for several nurses within the impotency. Emergency nurses too usually receive each physical and verbal abuse from patients and guests.

Geriatrics & Pediatrics Nursing

Gerontological nursing is that the specialty of nursing touching on older adults. Gerontological nurses add collaboration with older adults, their families, and communities to support healthy aging, most functioning, and quality of life. The term medicine nursing, that replaced the term geriatric nursing within the Nineteen Seventies, is seen as being additional in keeping with the specialty’s broader specialize in health and well-being, additionally to malady. Gerontological nursing is vital to fulfill the health desires of associate degree aging population. Due to longer life and declining fertility rates, the proportion of the population that’s thought-about recent is increasing. Between 2000 and 2050, the quantity of individuals within the world United Nations agency square measure over age sixty is expected increase from 605 million to two billion.

The main role of pediatric nurses is to administer directly procedures and medicines to children per prescribed medical aid plans. Nurses conjointly regularly assess the patient by observant very important signs and developing communication skills with children’s and members of the family and with medical groups. Being a support to children’s and their families is one element of direct medical aid. Awareness of the issues of children’s and parents, being present physically at times of stress and implementing methods to assist children’s and members of the family cope square measure all a part of the work. Pediatric nursing is that the medical aid of neonates and children’s up to adolescence, sometimes in associate degree in-patient hospital or day-clinic. Pediatric nurse practitioners play an outsized role within the lives of kids in each sick and conjointly healthy child. To become a pediatric registered nurse you may got to head to college for a minimum of 2 years once earning a degree, and you may got to apply to your state board of nursing to be recognized as a complicated follow nurse.

Neonatal Nursing & Maternal Healthcare

Neonatal nursing could be a subspecialty of medical aid for newborn infants up to twenty-eight days after birth. Neonatal nursing needs a high degree of talent, dedication and emotional strength because the nurse’s look after newborn infants with a variety of issues, variable between immatureness, birth defects, infection, internal organ malformations and surgical issues. Neonatal nurses area unit a significant a part of the baby care team and area unit needed to understand basic newborn revival, be ready to management the newborn’s temperature and knowledge to initiate respiratory organ and pulse oximetry watching. Most Neonatal nurses look after infants from the time of birth till they’re discharged from the hospital. Duties of a Neonatal nurse sometimes embrace activity very important nutrients to newborns, ever-changing feeding tubes, administering medication, observant very important signs, performing arts intubations and victimization watching devices. Within the common scenario wherever premature and sick newborns’ lungs don’t seem to be totally developed, they need to make sure infants area unit respiration and maturing properly. Neonatal nurses work at the side of superior nurses and physicians to facilitate treatment plans and examinations. Neonatal nurses can even work with speech-language pathologists WHO concentrate on the assessment and treatment of feeding, swallowing and communication in preterm infants. They need regular interaction with patients’ families, thus area unit needed to teach parents or relative on the baby’s condition and prepare care directions once the infant is discharged from the hospital. If parents have queries that Neonatal nurse’s area unit incapable of respondent, they will direct them to a different medical staffer who is able to.

Maternal health is that the health of ladies throughout physiological condition, childbirth, and also the postnatal amount. It encompasses the health care dimensions of birth prevention, preconception, prenatal, and postpartum care so as to confirm a positive and fulfilling expertise in most cases and cut back maternal morbidity and mortality in alternative cases. Four components area unit essential to maternal death bar. First, prenatal care is suggested that expectant mothers receive a minimum of four prenatal visits to examine and monitor the health of mother and fetus. Second, accomplished birth attending with emergency backup like doctors, nurses and midwives United Nations agency have the abilities to manage traditional deliveries and acknowledge the onset of complications. Third, emergency medicine care to deal with the main causes of maternal death that area unit trauma, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorders and choked labour. Lastly, postpartum care that is that the six weeks following delivery. Throughout this point harm, infection and hypertensive disorders will occur and newborns area unit very vulnerable within the immediate aftermath of birth. Therefore, follow-up visits by a medical expert area unit assessing the health of each mother and kid within the postpartum amount is powerfully suggested.

Surgical Nursing & Techniques

A surgical nurse, additionally mentioned as a theatre nurse or nurse, makes a specialty of surgical care, providing care to patients before, throughout and when surgery. To become a theatre nurse, Registered Nurses or Enrolled Nurses should complete further coaching. There are totally different specialty areas that theatre nurses will focus in betting on those areas. There are many alternative phases throughout surgery wherever the theatre nurse is required to support and assist the patient, surgeons, surgical technicians, nurse anesthetists and nurse practitioners. Pre-operative, the nurse should facilitate to organize the patient and surgery for the surgery. Throughout the surgery, they assist the medical specialist and surgeons after they are required. The last part is post-operative, enduring that the patients are given appropriate care and coverings. People that need to become surgical nurses attend school of nursing and focus on surgical nursing.

The scrub nurse is responsible for vital technical duties. These will embody guaranteeing they need properly ready the surgical instruments and trolleys and guaranteeing that everyone operative provides is sterilized. Alternative skills considerably vital for the nurse role embody non-technical skills. It’s vital for surgical nurses to possess an intensive understanding of their roles and interactions with patients and their immediate families among surgical care surroundings. One very important role for a surgical nurse is to supply support and confidence to their patient whereas they’re in hospital. Nurses are needed to possess sensible communication skills and maintain knowledgeable relationship with their patient. It’s vital for the nurse to make a trusting relationship with their patient however this could prove tough among the short time obtainable.

Nursing Rehabilitation & Management

Rehabilitation of sensory and psychological feature perform generally involves strategies for preparation neural pathways or coaching new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by illness or trauma. 3 common psychological science issues treatable with rehabilitation area unit attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion, and spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation analysis and practices area unit a fertile space for clinical neuropsychologists etc.,  Nursing management consists of the performance of the leadership functions of governance and decision-making among organizations using nurses. It includes processes common to any or all management like coming up with, organizing, staffing, leading and dominant. It’s common for registered nurses to hunt further education to earn a Master of Science in Nursing or Doctor of Nursing applies to arrange for leadership roles among nursing. Management positions progressively need candidates to carry a sophisticated degree in nursing.

Ambulatory Care Nursing & Patient Safety

Ambulatory care nursing is that the medical care of patients who receive treatment on an outpatient basis, i.e., they do not require admission to a hospital for an overnight stay. Ambulatory care includes those clinical, organizational and professional activities engaged in by registered nurses with and for people, groups, and populations who ask for help with rising health and/or ask for look after health-related issues. Ambulatory care nurses use proof based mostly info across a range of patient health care settings to realize and guarantee patient safety and quality of care whereas rising patient outcomes. Contact with patients in Ambulatory care is commonly comparatively transient, and within the context of a high volume of patients. Nurses during this setting need sound assessment skills and therefore the ability to guide patients in creating sophisticated health selections. Quality mobile care nursing has been related to fewer emergency department visits, hospital visits and readmissions.

Patient safety may be a discipline that emphasizes safety in health care through the hindrance, reduction, reporting, and analysis of medical error that always ends up in adverse effects. The frequency and magnitude of avertible adverse events knowledgeable about by patients wasn’t standard till the Nineties, once multiple countries reported staggering numbers of patients injured and killed by medical errors. Recognizing that tending errors impact one in each ten patients round the world, the Globe Health Organization calls patient safety a virulent disease concern. Indeed, patient safety has emerged as a definite tending discipline supported by associate immature nonetheless developing scientific framework. There’s a major Trans disciplinary body of theoretical and analysis literature that informs the science of patient safety. The ensuing patient safety information regularly informs improvement efforts such as: applying lessons learned from business and business, adopting innovative technologies, educating suppliers and customers, enhancing error news systems, and developing new economic incentives.

Travel Nursing

Travel nursing is a nursing assignment concept that developed in response to the nursing shortage. This industry supplies nurses who travel to work in temporary nursing positions, mostly in hospitals. While travel nursing traditionally refers specifically to the nursing profession, it can also be used as a blanket term to refer to a variety of travel healthcare positions, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology and even doctors and dentists. Reasons cited for pursuing travel nursing opportunities include higher pay, professional growth and development, and personal adventure. Travelers typically select from one or more recruitment agencies to act as intermediaries between the traveler and hospitals or other potential employers, but may also work as an Independent Contractor (IC). Agencies may submit applications for numerous positions concurrently on behalf of a traveler. Travelers typically work under a short-term contract. In the United States, these contracts typically range from 4 to 13 weeks, although 26-week assignments are also possible, and some travel nurses will accept back-to-back assignments from the same facility. Contracts outside of the U.S. can last 1–2 years. Frequently, a permanent position is offered by the hospital at the end of the contract. Some have expressed concern that nursing positions may be taken by travel nurses, thus lowering job openings for long-term nurses.

Pregnancy & Midwifery

Obstetrical nursing also called perinatal nursing, is a nursing specialty that works with patients who are attempting to become pregnant, are currently pregnant, or have recently delivered. Obstetrical nurses help provide prenatal care and testing, care of patients experiencing pregnancy complications, care during labor and delivery, and care of patients following delivery. Obstetrical nurses work closely with obstetricians, midwives, and nurse practitioners. They also provide supervision of patient care technicians and surgical technologists. Obstetrical nurses perform postoperative care on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring, and health assessments. Obstetrical nurses are required to possess specialized skills such as electronic fetal monitoring, nonstress tests, neonatal resuscitation, and medication administration by continuous intravenous drip. Obstetrical nurses are also expected to be detailed and organized because they usually have more than one patient to deal with at a time. Their mental and physical strength is important because the nurses work long hours usually standing and also have to be able to perform tasks expertly. Nurses should be emotionally stable because they will have to cope with emergencies and loss. Lastly, they need to have critical thinking skills because the patient’s health could change in an instant and they have to be ready to know what to do quickly and accurately.

A midwife is a health professional specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women’s sexual and reproductive health and newborn care. Their education and training in midwifery equips them to recognize the variations of normal progress of labor, and understand how to deal with deviations from normal. They may intervene in high risk situations such as breech births, twin births and births where the baby is in a posterior position, using non-invasive techniques. When a pregnant woman requires care beyond the midwife’s scope of practice, they refer women to obstetricians or perinatologists, who are medical specialists in complications related to pregnancy and birth, including surgical and instrumental deliveries.

Public Health & Community Health Nursing

Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health. This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, and through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Common public health initiatives include promoting hand washing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Modern public health practice requires multidisciplinary teams of public health workers and professionals. Teams might include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, medical assistants, public health nurses, midwives, medical microbiologists, economists, sociologists, geneticists and data managers. Depending on the need environmental health officers or public health inspectors, bioethicists, and even veterinarians, gender experts, sexual and reproductive health specialists might be called on. Access to health care and public health initiatives are difficult challenges in developing countries. Public health infrastructures are still forming in those countries.

Community nursing is nursing care delivered out with acute hospitals, for example in the home, within General Practice facilities, in community hospitals, in police custody, at a school or in a care home.

The job functions covered include

Ambulatory care nursing

Assisted living

Faith community nursing

Flight nurse

Gerontological nursing

Home care

Home health nursing

Care Home Nurse

Community Children’s Nurse

Community Mental Health/Psychiatric Nurse

Community Learning Disability Nurse

Community Midwife

Criminal Justice/Prison Nurse

District Nurse (DN)

General Practice Nurse (GPN)

Health Visitor (HV)

Homeless Outreach Nurse

Nurses working in unscheduled care, eg. working with paramedics

Occupational Health Nurse

Palliative Care Nurse

Public Health Nurse

Sexual Health Nurse

Military nurse

Nurse-Family Partnership

Private duty nursing

School nursing


Healthcare & Hospital Management

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, midwifery, nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, pharmacy, psychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of healthcare. It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

Health administration or healthcare administration is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks. Health systems management or health care systems management describes the leadership and general management of hospitals, hospital networks, and/or health care systems. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy, pathology, and radiology.

Control Prevention of Disease & Causing Agents

Control Prevention of Disease & Causing Agents

Nutrition & Obesity

Nutrition & Obesity